The correct lubricant (by Petr Vavruch)

CONTENTS

1. THREE BASIC ASPECTS OF LUBRICATING OILS
1.1 Viscosity (kinematic, dynamic viscosity, ISO VG)
1.2 Viscosity of engine oils (SAE, multi-grade)
1.3 Viscosity of automotive gear oils
1.4 Viscosity index (and viscosity modifiers)
1.5 Pour point (and pour point depressant)
1.6 Flash point and Noack volatility
1.7 EXERCISE (viscosity-temperature chart)
1.8 Foam, entrained air and air release (and defoamant)
1.9 Base stocks (saturates, aromatic hydrocarbons, Group I+, II+, III+)
1.9.1 What does 'synthetic' mean?
1.9.2 Polyalphaolefins (PAO)
1.9.3 Other synthetic hydrocarbons
1.9.4 Switching to PAO
1.9.5 Polyalkylene glycols (PAG) (also polar compounds)
1.9.6 Esters (and biodegradable lubricants)
1.9.7 Naphthenics
1.10 Oil performance (and additive requirements)
1.11 Water separability (demulsibility)
1.12 Supplemental ('proprietary') additives
2. REVISION 1
3. AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICATING OILS, ENGINE OILS
3.1 Engine oils (also ZDTP, detergents and dispersants)
3.2 API (American Petroleum Institute) service categories
3.3 Sulphated ash
3.4 TBN (Total Base Number)
3.5 ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee)
3.6 ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles)
3.7 Equipment manufacturers (OEM, a brief note)
3.8 What oil to use in car engines / Engine oil selection (a brief summary)
3.9 Two-stroke petrol engines
3.10 Outboard engine and gear oils
3.11 Four-stroke motorcycle engines
3.12 Gas engines
3.13 Marine engines and emergency power generation
3.14 Railroad engine oils
3.15 Gas turbines
3.16 Automotive gear oils for manual gearboxes and axles
3.17 Limited-slip differentials
3.18 Eaton (formerly Fuller) / ZF-FreedomLine
3.19 Caterpillar TO-4
3.20 Allison
3.21 Total Acid Number (TAN)
3.22 Automatic transmission fluids (ATF)
3.23 Farm equipment oils (UTTO, STOU)
3.24 Brake fluids
4. REVISION 2
5. LUBRICATION CONDITIONS
5.1 Hydrodynamic lubrication
5.2 Boundary lubrication (lubricity, anti-wear, EP)
5.3 Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL)
6. INDUSTRIAL GEAR OILS
6.1 Worm gears (PAG)
6.2 Continuously variable transmissions (small, industrial type)
6.3 Open gears
7. GREASES
7.1 Grease thickeners
7.2 Grease compatibility
7.3 Grease consistency
7.4 Grease lubricated rolling element bearings
7.5 Typical replenishment instructions for big electric motors
7.6 Grease-filled gearboxes
7.7 Grease selection
7.8 Grease or oil?
8. BEARINGS, CIRCULATING OILS
8.1 Rolling element bearings
8.2 Plain bearings
8.3 Paper machines
8.4 Steam turbines
9. COMPRESSORS
9.1 Air compressors (also coalescer filters)
9.2 Vacuum pumps
9.3 Other gases
9.4 Refrigeration compressors
10. HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
10.1 Fire-resistant fluids
10.2 Oil cleanliness
11. LUBRICANT STORAGE
12. TRANSFORMER OILS
13. SHELF LIFE OF LUBRICANTS
14. MACHINE TOOLS
15. CUTTING FLUIDS (for grinding and metal cutting)
16. RUST PREVENTIVES
17. REVISION 3
18. CHALLENGE
ANSWERS
CHARTS


SUMMARY

This book covers basic practical information about lubrication and lubricants.

Viscosity, the most important lubricant characteristic in both oils and greases, is covered first, together with viscosity index. Then some other important characteristics, followed by base oils including synthetics, and finally the critical performance requirements for various applications.

The second part of the book deals with applications, starting with engine oils, then automotive gear and transmission oils, greases, industrial gear oils, circulating oils, compressor oils, hydraulic fluids, fire-resistant fluids, machine tool oils, oil cleanliness, storage and storage stability, finally briefly rust preventives and cutting fluids.

In addition to the essential requirements in each application, this part focuses on the difficult question: When is it advisable, or even necessary, to use synthetic lubricants?

The last part is included for people who use the book as a textbook. They will be challenged to find the correct lubricants to solve various practical problems. If the learners manage to complete this task, they will show that they have learned a great deal about lubricants.

To help the learners remember important aspects of each chapter, there are many questions and also three revisions in the text. The answers are at the end of the book and on a web page.

Relevant links to resources for further study are organized by subjects covered in the book.

A hard copy of this book should be in every plant and fleet.


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